The Powder Metallurgy Process

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The Powder Metallurgy Process


Powder Metallurgy comprises a family of production technologies, which process a feedstock in powder form to manufacture components of various types. These production technologies generally involve all or most of the following process steps:

powder_metallurgy_process

A flowchart of the basic Powder Metallurgy

process for structural press and sintered

components.

  1. Powder production

  2. Mixing of powders

    This can often involve the introduction of alloying additions in elemental powder form or the incorporation of a pressing lubricant.

  3. Forming of the mixed powder into a compact

    The dominant consolidation process involves pressing in a rigid toolset, comprising a die, punches and, possibly, mandrels or core rods. However, there are several other consolidation processes that are used in niche applications.


  4. Sintering of the compact to enhance integrity and strength

    This process step involves heating of the material, usually in a protective atmosphere, to a temperature that is below the melting point of the major constituent. In some cases, a minor constituent can form a liquid phase at sintering temperature; such cases are described as liquid phase sintering. The mechanisms involved in solid phase and liquid phase sintering are discussed briefly in a later section.

  5. Secondary operations

    The application of finishing processes to the sintered part. In the Powder Metallurgy industry, such processes are often referred to as “secondary operations”.




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